Author Archives: Brittany James

A Quick Profile Of

These days there’s certainly no shortage of health content online, and much of it isn’t great. But there’s still plenty of websites that publish good, free, accurate and useful information, and we’d like to highlight You Must Get Healthy as one such site. not only publishes some useful health articles, but also focuses on trying to make its content interesting through humor, and publishes only unique content.

Have a quick read through the site and you’ll probably find some things that interest you, especially if you are interested in health and taking are of your body.

Also, here are the relevant social media profiles of the website: (blog Twitter account) (Twitter account of the owner)

Famous runestone in Sweden may have been erected for fear of extreme winter

The Rök rune stone, one of the most famous Viking rune stones in the world, has been analyzed again by a team of researchers who published the results in Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies. This stone, which is located in a church in Östergötland, Sweden, was hoisted around 800 AD.

The most widespread thesis is that this stone, which boasts a mysterious inscription, never fully deciphered, was erected in honor of the dead son of an important personality. Some researchers have thought that the inscriptions may refer to the heroic acts of Theodoric the Great who was sovereign of the Ostrogoths during the sixth century in the area of modern Italy.

However, the new study, written by researchers from three different Swedish universities, suggests that the inscriptions refer to the danger of an imminent extreme winter and the fear of a repetition of a previous climate crisis that had seen extreme cold in Scandinavia in times before the erection of the stone. As the researchers explain, the inscription suggests an underlying anxiety that began following the death of a child but also the fear of a new climate crisis, something that these populations were evidently well aware of because in 536 A.D. there had been a catastrophic one.

It was during this period that there was an extreme cold caused by several volcanic eruptions. The winters saw very low average temperatures and this led, consequently, to poorer harvests and famine but also to mass extinctions in the animal world. It is estimated that during this period the population living in the Scandinavian area had been reduced by 50% and memories of this adverse event and extreme cold have evidently passed from generation to generation and never forgotten for centuries.

Moreover, when battles lasting more than 100 years are mentioned in the same inscription, according to the researchers we are referring not to real battles in the context of some war but to a different concept of battle, a sort of conflict between light and darkness, between heat and cold and therefore between life and death. Evidently in the period in which the stone was erected, there must have been some natural phenomenon that affected these populations, such as a powerful solar storm that saw the sky change color, a solar eclipse or an unusually cold summer with crops dying.

Only one of these events, as Bo Graslund, professor of archaeology at the University of Uppsala and one of the authors of the study, explains, could have triggered the necessary level of fear of a new “Fimbulwinter” (“great winter” in Norse mythology).

North Atlantic current could stop for the next 100 years

The North Atlantic Current, a global climate phenomenon essential because it carries hot water from the Gulf of Mexico to Europe and the North Atlantic Ocean, could cease, albeit temporarily, during the next century according to a study published in Scientific Reports and carried out by researchers at the Universities of Groningen and Utrecht.

This current, or rather a complex system of currents in the Atlantic Ocean, causes a phenomenon defined as “southern overturning circulation” (AMOC), a phenomenon that guarantees an almost mild climate for most of north-western Europe, transporting southern heat to the North. The phenomenon could come to a halt due to the sea water that could increase as a result of the melting of Greenland ice as well as possible increased rainfall.

Already in the period between 2008 and 2012 the average strength of the AMOC decreased compared to the period 2004-2008 and there was a short interval at the end of 2009 when its strength was almost zero. According to the researchers, AMOC’s strength could be sensitive to the presence of surface fresh water. Researchers have carried out simulations of large freshwater inputs into seawater, which is what is expected to happen during the coming decades with the Greenland meltdown, and have found that there is a 15% probability that during the next century this current could stop, or almost completely, temporarily.

Researcher Daniele Castellana of the University of Utrecht, one of the authors of the study, states: “The temporary interruptions of the North Atlantic current are to be interpreted as fluctuations of the same current. The consequences of these fluctuations on the climate of Europe and North America have not been analyzed by the study, and there is no (yet) evidence to affirm a correlation between the two phenomena. Substantial temperature variations have been found, by other studies, as the potential consequence of a permanent stop of the Atlantic currents. Such a permanent stop, however, seems to be very unlikely in the next 100 years, as our study states.”

In essence, any climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and continents with decreases in temperature and possible waves of frost as a result of temporary stops in the current must be substantiated by further studies.

Life on earth perhaps emerged thanks to lakes rich in phosphorus

Life on Earth may have originated in carbonate-rich lakes with high levels of phosphorus, an essential element for life as we know it. This is the conclusion of a new study conducted by two researchers from the Department of Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle, Jonathan Toner and David Catling.

Toner himself speaks of a real “phosphate problem”, a question not fully resolved with regard to the very origin of life on our planet. In the new study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, attention is therefore drawn to phosphorus, one of the six chemical elements at the basis of life that can have many essential roles in our body (for example it can be considered a basic element of the backbone and molecules of DNA and RNA).

The problem mentioned by Toner lies in the fact that life needs a lot of phosphorus, an element that in the primordial Earth, according to the dominant theories, should not be so available. Focusing, however, on lakes rich in carbonates, also known as alkaline lakes, researchers have noticed a particular phenomenon: these lakes usually form in dry environments, inside real depressions that help the water to escape. However, due to the high evaporation rates, these same waters begin to become very salty from alkaline and to assume a high pH. These lakes are currently still very widespread around the world.

Researchers have carried out laboratory experiments with carbonate-rich water in different chemical compositions and found that these waters show a high presence of phosphorus precisely because of carbonate. Carbonate binds with calcium, leaving part of the phosphate unattached and freely available in the water. A fairly simple idea but still fascinating, as Toner himself suggests.

According to David Catling, the other author of the study, these very high levels of phosphate in lakes and ponds would then have favored the reactions that led phosphorus to be the basis of RNA, proteins and fats, basic elements for life.
These lakes, then, in the period of origin of life, about 4 billion years ago, would have been very numerous also because of the high level of carbon dioxide in the air. In addition, carbon dioxide itself tends to dissolve in water, raising the level of acidity and promoting the release of phosphorus from the rocks, increasing the presence of this element.

This was not a rare phenomenon since the primitive Earth was volcanically very active and therefore fresh volcanic rock tended to react with carbon dioxide increasing the presence of carbonate and phosphorus in the lakes, as Toner himself makes clear that in the primordial Earth lakes rich in carbonates were not at all an exception but the rule.

Experimental HIV vaccine successfully elicits antibodies that neutralize viruses in rabbits

Research for the development of a truly effective vaccine for HIV continues. A new study, this time conducted by the scientists of the Scripps Research Institute and published on Immunity describes the results that the same researchers have obtained with an experimental vaccine, results that have led to “an important milestone.” It is a vaccine that urges antibodies so that they can neutralize a wide variety of HIV strains.

For now, tests have been carried out on rabbits but the same antibodies have proven to be “largely neutralizing” when they targeted at least two critical virus sites. These results give researchers hope for the development of a new, effective HIV vaccine, a vaccine that can elicit neutralizing antibodies at multiple HIV sites to provide a solid production against this virus.

“It is an initial principle test but important, and we are now working to optimize the design of this vaccine,” says Richard Wyatt, professor of immunology and microbiology at Scripps as well as one of the authors of the study. The new vaccine is based on a protein that mimics HIV protein called “Env.” In fact, this protein boasts a molecular mechanism that allows it to bind to an immune cell receptor known as CD4. This receptor can be used as a “portal” to break into the cell.

The Env version designed by researchers is stable enough to be used as a vaccine, at least on rabbits. Out of 12 animals with HIV on which this particular protein was inoculated, five developed antibodies that could neutralize more HIV isolates.

Climate change on Mars may be understood soon thanks to InSight rover

The climatic changes in the history of Mars can be analyzed by measuring the temperatures of the subsoil: it is to this result that some researchers of the University of Stirling have arrived who have relied on the technology related to the probe of the heat flows that is on board of one NASA rover present on Mars arrived in the context of the InSight mission, NASA’s latest on Mars.

The researchers, who have worked on hypothetical models, have discovered that the planet’s climate changes, such as those that occurred on Earth, can therefore be effectively detected by this particular tool. The research was carried out by Nicholas Attree, who led the research team, who together with his colleague Axel Hagermann is working on the NASA InSight mission which saw the landing of the rover on Mars in November last year.

Researchers are working on the particular tool Heat Flow and Physical Properties Probe (HP3), provided by the German planetary research institute in Berlin, which will excavate Mars to record its temperatures and measure heat flow. Depending on the amount of heat the probe will measure and the quality of the measurements, it will be possible to create Martian climate evolution models.

The team could therefore also identify past climate changes in Mars as long as they are very large changes: “We have found that it is unlikely that small changes caused by climate change will be detected by HP3,” said Attree. “However, it may be possible to detect very large changes, and this is important because we might be able to perform similar measurements on other planets.”

The work was published in Planetary and Space Science.

“Swimmers shoulder” much more widespread among boys than thought

The so-called “swimmer’s shoulder,” a painful condition often present in swimmers, even more in professional or competitive ones, was the subject of a new study presented at the conference of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).

The researchers analyzed 150 competitive young high school or youth club swimmers aged between 13 and 18 and discovered that there were many (76.7%) children suffering from shoulder pain, a condition that seems to be connected to the fact that they swam every day to train.

The swimmer’s shoulder is a condition that can be caused by excessive distances practiced by swimming every day and this can also be connected to a culture that is not exactly positive due to competitive swimming, which in part “sublimates” pain, as specified in the press release presents the research. Very often, especially the younger ones, they think that this pain is something that must be “tolerated” for having success in the activity.

“We found that almost half of the athletes in our study know peers who use drugs to deal with swimming-related injuries, so we worry about exposure to drugs especially in the context of the opioid epidemic,” says Eli Cahan, one of the authors of the study.

The same study shows a fairly clear connection from the distance traveled in swimming and the levels of pain. Those who did not report shoulder pain, in fact, reported covering shorter average distances than those reporting pain.

Scientists discover how skin fights bacterial infections

A new mechanism that allows the body tape, specifically to our skin, to fight wounds caused by bacterial infections has been discovered by a group of researchers from Charité -Universitätsmedizin Berlin. Researchers have discovered that it is a specific molecule, known as interleukin 6, that goes into action and it is this discovery that could be used in the future for new methods to fight infections of bacterial wounds. These wounds, in the worst cases, can in fact lead to serious consequences such as severe inflammation and septicemia.

The team of researchers led by Frank Siebenhaar, from the German Institute’s Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, analyzed how mast cells, cells of the immune system, are involved in the skin’s response to bacterial infection and in general in the healing process.

Observing the animals, the researchers realized that if the mast cells were absent at the point of the wound, the bacteria present on it were 20 times higher in number. This caused a much slower wound closure that took several days.

The researchers found that messaging interleukin 6 molecules made the beneficial action of mast cells possible. These molecules stimulate the cells of the superficial layer of the epidermis, prompting them to release antimicrobial peptides, protein chains that eliminate bacteria, as well as viruses and with mushrooms.

Researchers then replicated these processes also in human tissue in the laboratory. The same researchers believe that by artificially applying interleukin 6 to infected wounds a similar mechanism can be obtained even if this is for the moment only a hypothesis that must be demonstrated with possible experiments on human beings.

Researchers find why friction causes static electricity

A group of researchers believes that it has relatively precisely identified the ways in which friction leads to static electricity. This is a phenomenon that probably everyone knows and that leads us to have to deal, almost daily, with small sparks or electrical discharges, in the great majority of innocuous cases, which can be caused by frictions of various kinds or various objects. A known example is that of hair that can stand up on the head.

A team of researchers at Northwestern University has created a new model that explains why rubbing two objects can produce static electricity or a triboelectric effect. In the study, published in Physical Review Letters, it is explained that it is the small protrusions, almost identifiable only at the atomic level, on the surface of the materials that bend when they come into contact to produce this electricity.

If you look at the nanoscale, in fact, every material, even the smoothest, is characterized by rough surfaces with countless protrusions. When two objects or materials come into contact and begin to bend with one another, these protrusions begin to deform. And it is these deformations that proved the tensions which in the end cause a small electric discharge, an effect called the flexoelectric effect.

“Our discovery suggests that triboelectricity, flexo-electricity and friction are inextricably linked,” says Laurence Marks, professor of materials engineering sciences at Northwestern as well as lead author of the study. “This provides a lot of information on customizing triboelectric performance for current applications and expanding functionality to new technologies.”

Asteroid impact 2.2 billion years ago may have contributed to the thawing of the Earth

A group of researchers, led by geochronologist Timmons Erickson of the Johnson Space Center, analyzed Yarrabubba crater, an impact crater located in Western ​​Australia. By analyzing the rocks, the researchers showed that it is a crater caused by the impact of an asteroid that occurred 2,229 billion years ago.

This is a period that coincides with the end of a deep phase of freezing of the planet known as “Snowball Earth.” Erickson and colleagues in the team do not believe it is a casual connection: the impact of the asteroid itself could have helped the Earth to thaw.

The impact would vaporize the thick slabs of ice on the earth’s surface and help spread relatively warm steam into the stratosphere. This, in turn, would have caused a powerful greenhouse effect and therefore the thawing of the entire globe.

“The temporal coincidence is surprising,” reports Eva Stüeken, a geobiologist at the University of St. Andrews, in a speech on the Science website about this theory. The same researcher, however, shows some doubts. The Yarrabubba impact crater is less than 1/3 wide than that left by the asteroid that caused the dinosaurs to extinguish 66 million years ago.

The researcher, therefore, believes that the impact of Yarrabubba could not have had such a profound effect on a global level.

Erickson and colleagues believe however that the impact of Yarrabubba has played some role in the global thaw. Maybe it was helpful acting together with the supposed volcanic eruptions that are believed to have caused carbon dioxide to be released into the air, causing global warming of the planet and therefore its thawing.

Precisely for this reason, they have created a computer model of the impact of a 5 miles wide asteroid that hits an ice cap with a thickness between 2 and 5 miles. The simulation showed that the impact can cause the spread of dust for thousands of kilometers, darkening the ice and therefore improving its ability to absorb heat.

Furthermore, such an impact can send hundreds of billions of tons of steam into the stratosphere, which would help the atmosphere trap heat.