Grapes

Revised September, 2021.Introduction

Wine may represent the most expensive and creative use of grapes, but it is not the only use. Eaten fresh as table grapes, dried as raisins or processed into jams, jellies and juices, grapes are thought to have been first cultivated more than 7,000 years ago near present-day Iran. Grape leaves are also used in a variety of cuisines.

Spanish friars are credited with bringing European varieties to the United States to serve at the missions they settled across California and the southwest beginning in the 1700s. California’s climate provided ideal grape-growing conditions, and consequently it became the leading grape-growing state.
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During 2020, 5,940,000 tons of grapes were grown commercially in the United States. California accounted for lima,615,000 tons. Other kulminasi grape-growing states include Washington and New York (NASS 2020). Marketing

The USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) collects grape production fakta from 13 states: Arkansas, California, Georgia, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia and Washington. Most other states produce grapes but their production data is not collected by NASS. The annual Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts report contains the NASS Grape production informasi.

NASS reports the U.S. had 920,000 bearing acres producing an average of 7.36 tons/acre, valued at 6.46 million in 2017.

Major Grape Uses Values:Canned: 16,000 tonsJuices: 451,900 tonsWine: 4,665,250 tonsDried: 1,464,100 tons

Most of these grapes produced on a large scale are marketed to supermarkets or exported. However, other marketing opportunities are available to small-scale producers of varieties that do not travel well, such as Reliance or Marquis, at local farmers’ markets, small artisanal food stores, white tablecloth restaurants and direct sales though u-pick and the Internet. Production

While grapes will grow in most climate zones in the United States, the types of grapes grown for wine, eating or juices are have a much more limited growing kewedanan. Before planting any commercial vineyard, consult an expert in viticulture in your daerah. Even in areas where the desired grape will grow, it is important to place the vineyard on the correct type of soil, with proper wind and water drainage, fertility, sub-soil make-up, facing the sun.

Selection of the types of grapes to produce will depend on what the market wants to buy. Market research is the most important step in starting a new vineyard. Wine makers buy only the types of grapes needed to make their wine. Develop a strong relationship with any buyers before planting. A mistake now will take 10 years to fix later.

Grapes are the fruit of a vine plant and grown in a field called a vineyard. The vines planted in rows evenly spaced six to 10 feet apart with 6 to 10 feet between each row. A wire trellis supports the vines above the ground for ease of caring for the vines and harvesting of the grapes. A vineyard can easily cost $15,000 an acre to establish before the first harvested in the third or fourth year after planting tambah the cost of the land.

Vineyards produce a very high value crop. Timely applications of fertilizers, herbicdes, inescticides, fungicides and pruning activities are a must to protect the crop. Other risks come from birds and deer attacking the crop at the pike of value that must be controlled. Management

A vineyard manager will inspect orchards or fields to determine crop maturity or condition or to detect disease or insect infestation. Direct crop production operations, such as planning, tilling, planting, fertilizing, cultivating, spraying, or harvesting. Monitor activities such as irrigation, chemical application, harvesting, milking, breeding, or grading to ensure adherence to safety regulations or standards. Plan crop activities based on factors such as crop maturity or weather conditions. Maintain financial, operational, production, or employment records for farms or ranches. See more occupations related to this task. Obtain financing necessary for purchases of machinery, land, supplies, or livestock. Inspect farm or ranch equipment to ensure proper functioning. Negotiate with buyers for the sale, storage, or shipment of grapes. Analyze soil to determine types or quantities of fertilizer required for maximum crop production. Evaluate marketing or sales alternatives for products. Prepare budgets or financial reports for farm or ranch operations. See more occupations related to this task.

A vineyard is a very labor-intensive farming business. Much of the work is by hand and in all kinds of weather, mostly hot and humid. Vineyards are springing up in every state of the nation. Talk to other vineyards about the availablility of vineyard workers.

While grapes will grow in most climate zones in the United States, the types of grapes grown for wine, eating or juices are have a much more limited growing kawasan. Before planting any commercial vineyard, consult an expert in viticulture in your kawasan. Even in areas where the desired grape will grow, it is important to place the vineyard on the correct type of soil, with proper wind and water drainage, fertility, sub-soil make-up, facing the ciuman. Resources/Other Links

SourcesFruit and Tree Nuts Outlook, Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA.Fruits and Tree Nuts,  ERS, USDA.

MarketingAmerican Society for Enology & Viticulture – A scientific organization for the wine and grape industry.American Vineyard Foundation, Napa, California.California Association of Winegrape GrowersCalifornia Table Grape CommissionFederal RegisterChanges in Grape Handling RequirementsFresh Deciduous Fruit, Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA, 2021.Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts, National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), USDA.Table Grapes: World Markets and TradeU.S. per capita food availability, ERS, USDA.

Processing/ManufacturingDepartment of Viticulture, University of California-Davis – Information on grape production and enologyDepartment of Viticulture, Washington State UniversityViticulture, Iowa State University Cooperative Extension – Production guides, budgets and supplies.Viticulture & Enology Research Center, California State University, Fresno.

ProductionVirtual Field Day Grape, Integrated Pest Management guidelines, University of California, Davis.Grapes Community of Practice, extension.Production Guide for Organic Grapes, Cornell University, Cooperative Extension.National Grape RegistryNorthwest Grapes Cost of Production CalculatorFinancial

          New: Market Report Generator, Iowa State University Extension.Cost and Return StudiesCalifornia – Current Cost and Return Studies, University of California Extension Service – Collection of cost/return analysis studies for a variety of production scenarios.IdahoEstablishment and Annual Production Costs for Washington Concord GrapesExpense Method of Depreciation – Iowa State University.Sample Costs to Establish a Vineyard and Produce Wine grapes, University of California Cooperative Extension.